Formation of Soil & Types of Soil

Types of Soils Triangle

Formation of Soil & Types of Soil The process of soil formation is called Pedogenesis. Pedogenesis is a cyclic phenomenon called geological cycle. Geological cycle has four cyclic steps. Erosion->Transportation->Deposition->Upheaval->Erosion Soil mechanics is the branch of civil engineering which deals with the study of characteristics , classification and behavior of soil under loaded and unloaded … Read more

Ribbed or Waffle Slab System – Advantages & Disadvantages

Waffle Slab Construction

Ribbed (Waffle) Slab System Ribbed floors consisting of equally spaced ribs are usually supported directly by columns.They are either one-way spanning systems known as ribbed slab or a two-way ribbed system known as a waffle slab. This form of construction is not very common because of the formwork costs and the low fire rating. A 120-mm-thick … Read more

Beam and Slab Floor System

beam column slab construction

Beam and Slab Floor System This system consists of beams framing into columns and supporting slabs spanning between the beams. It is a very traditional system. The relatively deep beams provide a stiff floor capable of long spans, and able to resist lateral loads. However, the complications of beam formwork, co-ordination of services, and overall … Read more

Dynamic Analysis Methods for Seismic Bridge Design

Sutong Bridge china

Dynamic Analysis Methods for Seismic Bridge Design Depending on the seismic zone, geometry, and importance of the bridge, the following analysis methods may be used for seismic bridge design: The single-mode method (single-mode spectral and uniform-load analysis) assumes that seismic load can be considered as an equivalent static horizontal force applied to an individual frame … Read more

Loads on bridge decks

Loads on bridge decks The loads on a bridge deck are made up of: Self weight; the weight of the bare concrete structure. Superimposed dead loads; the weight of permanent loads applied to the bare concrete structure, such as parapets, footpaths, road surfacing etc. These loads do not contribute to the strength of the deck. … Read more

Principles of statics and Conditions of Static equilibrium

conditions of equilibrium of forces

Principles of statics Principles of statics consists of the study of structures that are at rest under static equilibrium conditions.  To ensure equilibrium, the forces acting on a structure must balance, net torque acting on the structure should be zero. The static analysis methods provide the means to analyze and determine both internal and external … Read more


Scaffolding structures that need to be designed

Scaffolding There is a limit to the safe working height at which a worker can access the building work from ground level. Therefore some form of temporary support is required to provide a safe and convenient working surface. This is known as scaffold or scaffolding. Scaffolding is used on new-build projects and for work to existing structures, including … Read more