## Pascal’s Triangle for determining the appropriate displacement field in finite element analysis

For the convergence of solution in finite element analysis, the assumed displacement field should be isotropic . This is achieved if the components of the displacement field are complete polynomials. This is achieved by using PASCAL’s TRIANGLE. It is a technique of including the appropriate number of terms in the displacement model. It also gives … Read more

## Shape functions for different elements used in finite element analysis

Shape functions or interpolation functions are functions used to represent behaviour of a field variable within an element. In finite element analysis we deal with different elements. The elements can be linear, quadratic, 8- noded, 9-noded etc. The shape function for these elements is required to be determined to draw a relationship between the nodal … Read more

## Numerical Integration in Finite Element Analysis

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION Numerical Integration is of prime importance when we deal with Finite Element Analysis especially in case of ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS. Gauss Quadrature formula is the most commonly used Numerical Integration schemes. In this method sampling points are located and weight factors are attached to it. The attached document carry sufficient examples to explain the … Read more

## Shape Functions or Interpolation Functions

Shape Functions or Interpolation Functions In FEA we discretize the solution region into finite elements. To conduct the analysis we assume a displacement model to approximately indicate the variations of the displacement within the element. The polynomial chosen to interpolate the field variables over the element are called shape functions. Denoted by[N], they establish the … Read more

## Classification of Earthquakes

Classification of Earthquakes BASED ON LOCATION: Interplate Intraplate An interplate earthquake is one that occurs at a plate boundary An intraplate earthquake is an earthquake that occurs in the interior of a tectonic plate Recurrence time is less Recurrence time is longer Interplate Earthquakes are recognized at surface Intraplate earthquakes are rarely recognized at the surface. This is because the faults are … Read more

## SOFT STOREY EFFECT DURING EARTHQUAKE

SOFT STOREY EFFECT In shaking a building, an earthquake ground motion will search for every structural weakness. These weaknesses are usually created by sharp changes in stiffness, strength and/or ductility, and the effects of these weaknesses are accentuated by poor distribution of reactive masses. Severe structural damage suffered by several modern buildings during recent earthquakes … Read more