Casino Game Design: How Games are Made to be Engaging

The world of casino gaming, a mesmerizing blend of chance, skill, and entertainment, stands as a pillar in the global leisure industry. At its heart, the art and science of casino game design plays a pivotal role in creating experiences that captivate and thrill players. This article aims to peel back the layers of this … Read more

Civil Engineering Undergraduate (B.Tech, BE) Course Syllabus – Semester 3

Civil Engineering Syllabus

Civil Engineering Undergraduate – Semester 3 MECHANICS OF SOLIDS Module 1 Tension, compression & shear Types of external loads – self weight – internal stresses – normal and shear stresses – strain – Hooke’s law – Poisson’s ratio – relationship between elastic constants – stress strain diagrams working stress – elongation of bars of constant … Read more


Scaffolding structures that need to be designed

Scaffolding There is a limit to the safe working height at which a worker can access the building work from ground level. Therefore some form of temporary support is required to provide a safe and convenient working surface. This is known as scaffold or scaffolding. Scaffolding is used on new-build projects and for work to existing structures, including … Read more

Sub Surface Irrigation | Subsurface Irrigation Working | Advantages

Sub Surface Irrigation

Introduction Sub Surface Irrigation In sub surface Irrigation , effluent is delivered directly to the infiltrative surface of the soil using specially manufactured polyethylene tubing with built-in turbulent flow emitters. Subsurface irrigation is a highly-efficient watering technique. It reduces outdoor water use by 30 to 40 percent. Design of Sub-surface Irrigation It consist a masonry chamber (Distribution box) where … Read more

Shotcrete – Concrete Repairing Techniques

Shotcrete in Concrete Repair Shotcrete is defined as “mortar or concrete pneumatically projected at high speed onto a surface” (American Concrete Institute, 1990). There are two basic types of shotcrete—dry mix and wet mix. In dry mix shotcrete, the dry cement, sand, and coarse aggregate, if used, are premixed with only sufficient water to reduce dusting. This mixture is … Read more

Trickling Filters & Advantages

Trickling Filters

Trickling Filters What Are Trickling Filters? •Fixed media treatment system •Waste water is distributed over media colonised by micro-organisms •Consists of a  bed of highly permeable media •An under drainage system important both as a  collection unit  &  as  porous structure •Biological community: •Aerobic •Anaerobic •Facultative •Fungi Process Organic material from liquid is adsorbed onto … Read more

Curing of Concrete and General Methods of Curing

Curing the concrete roof slab

Curing of Concrete and General Methods of Curing Concrete that has been specified, batched, mixed, placed, and finished “letter-perfect” can still be a failure if improperly or inadequately cured. Curing is usually the last step in a concrete project and, unfortunately, is often neglected even by professionals. Curing has a major influence on the properties … Read more

Types of Portland cement and Uses

Types of Portland cement and Uses Portland cement was named for the Isle of Portland, a peninsula in the English Channel where it was first produced in the 1800’s. Since that time, a number of developments and improvements have been made in the production process and cement properties. The production process for portland cement first … Read more

What is Concrete and what are the Properties of Concrete

Grand Coulee Dam - Properties of Concrete

What is Concrete and what are the Properties of Concrete Concrete is a mixture of portland cement, water, aggregates, and in some cases, admixtures. The cement and water form a paste that hardens and bonds the aggregates together. Concrete is often looked upon as “man made rock”. Concrete is the most widely used construction material … Read more