Use & Application Of Oxygen Isotopes In Ground Water Studies

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)

Use & Application Of Oxygen Isotopes In Ground Water Studies Introduction Naturally occurring oxygen is composed of three stable isotopes 16O, 17O, and 18O. 16O being the most abundant (99.762% natural abundance) Known oxygen isotopes range in mass number from 12 to 24. 16O is a primary isotope while 17O and 18O are secondary isotopes Stable oxygen is used in ground water studies to investigate … Read more

Environmental Impacts Of Water Resource Projects and Transpiration


Environmental Impacts Of Water Resource Projects and Transpiration – Introduction 76%of total water is used by agriculture, 6.2% by power generation, 5.7% by the industries. Impacts of W.R.P. on the environment are quite diverse. The diversity may be due to varieties of resources and associated transformation of these resources. These impacts may be political, social, … Read more

Well Yield | Determination of well yield | Designing of a well

Well yield

Well Yield – Introduction Well is a man made formation having structures which permits appreciable amount of water to move through them under ordinary conditions. 3 types of sources that a well get water from:- Unconfined Aquifer have water table as upper surface of zone of saturation Confined Aquifer have water confined by an impermeable … Read more

Concrete and the Environment

Concrete and the Environment There is increasing concern now that the choice of construction materials must also be governed by ecological considerations. At the beginning of the 20th Century, the world population was 1.5 billion; by the end of the 20th Century it had risen to 6 billion. Considering that it took 10,000 years after … Read more

Guide to Concrete Repair


Guide to Concrete Repair Concrete repairs have occurred on Reclamation projects since the first construction concrete was placed in 1903. Unfortunately, even though the best available materials were used, many repair failures have occurred during the 90 years since that first concrete construction. In evaluating the causes of these failures, it was learned that it … Read more

Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Historical Development Fibers have been used to reinforce brittle materials from time immemorial, dating back to the Egyptian and Babylonian eras, if not earlier. Straws were used to reinforce sun-baked bricks and mud-hut walls, horse hair was used to reinforce plaster, and asbestos fibers have been used to reinforce Portland cement mortars. Research … Read more

Natural And Artificial Tracers In Ground Water

Tracers in water

Natural And Artificial Tracers In Ground Water Introduction •The fundamental idea of the tracer technique is simple and clear. •water is “marked” with the aid of a tracer and its propagation is followed. •it has useful means in almost all fields of applied hydrology and hydrogeology.(groundwater, rivers, lakes, glaciers, etc.) Groundwater tracing Groundwater tracers include … Read more

Concrete Basics & The need for Joints

Concrete Basics & The need for Joints

Concrete Basics & The need for Joints What Causes Concrete To Crack? Many surface cracks in concrete slabs are not a result of structural failure of the slab but are formed by uncontrolled shrinkage of the concrete. These types of cracks can be avoided. Shrinkage cracks are the result of the concrete volume decreasing as … Read more

Concrete Basics: A Guide To Concrete Practice

concrete prac

Concrete Basics A Guide To Concrete Practice Concrete Materials,Concrete Properties,Concrete Testing,Ordering Concrete,Proportioning and Mixing Concrete, Planning and Site Preparation,Transporting and Placing Concrete,Compacting Concrete,Finishing Concrete, Curing Concrete,Joints in Concrete,Hot and Cold Weather Concreting,Surface Finishes on Concrete, Defects in Concrete,Removing Stains from Concrete,Cracking in Concrete,Reinforced Concrete, Formwork CONCRETE is made by mixing: CEMENT WATER COARSE AND FINE … Read more