Lake Restoration

Lake restoration

Lake Restoration Introduction Lake is a very general term used for any standing water, generally large enough in area and depth, but irrespective of its hydrology, ecology, and other characteristics.  These water bodies are used primarily for drinking water supplies, irrigation and/or recreation. Functions of Lakes •Lakes are majorly for storage of water. •Most riverine … Read more

CO2 Emissions From Cement Production

Co2 chart

CO2 Emissions From Cement Production ABSTRACT Cement is an important construction ingredient produced in virtually all countries. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a by- product of a chemical conversion process used in the production of clinker, a component of cement, in which limestone (CaCO3) is converted to lime (CaO). CO2 is also emitted during cement production … Read more

Aggregates Industries

Aggregate Industries

Aggregates Industries Aggregates Industries is a major supplier of high quality crushed granite to markets across northern Europe. With our own fleet of self discharging vessels, strategically placed coastal super quarries and extensive knowledge of the European markets, we can provide a full product and logistical solution for our customers, through ports that span the … Read more

Irrigation Technology in Israel

Irrigation Technology in Israel

Irrigation Technology in Israel Physiography —Area of 20,770 km2 —Population of about 6.0 million , 90% lives in urban areas and 10% in rural areas —Land is divisible into three longitudinal strips running from north to south, comprising a coastal plain, a long inland escarpment and a large desert area in the south. —Main river … Read more

Admixtures in Concrete

Admixtures in Concrete admixture in concrete Admixtures are those ingredients in concrete other than portland cement, water, and aggregates that are added to the mixture immediately before or during mixing (Fig. 6-1). Admixtures can be classified by function as follows:   Admixtures in Concrete Air-entraining admixtures Water-reducing admixtures Plasticizers Accelerating admixtures Retarding admixtures Hydration-control admixtures … Read more



Infiltration Definitions —Infiltration: process by which water enters the soil surface Infiltration capacity:  maximum rate at which water can enter the soil Infiltration Capacity Some Important Soil Characteristics Darcy’s Law (1856) Hydraulic Conductivity in Soils Infiltration by Horton’s method Infiltration indices An average constant value of infiltration is called infiltration index. Two types of infiltration … Read more

ACI Method of Mix Design Outline


ACI Method of Mix Design Outline The most common method used in North America is that established by ACI Recommended Practice 211.1 Any mix design procedure will provide a first approximation of the proportions and must be checked by trial batches Local characteristics in materials should be considered The following sequence of steps should be … Read more

ACI Mix Design Practical Example

ACI Mix Design Practical Example Consider the following example: The 28-day compressive strength should be 7,000 psi. The slump should be between 3 and 4 in. and the maximum aggregate size should not exceed ¾ in. The coarse and fine aggregates in the storage bins are wet. The properties of the materials are as follows: … Read more

Effect Of ACI Concrete Mix Design Parameters On Mix Proportion And Strength

Effect Of ACI Concrete Mix Design Parameters On Mix Proportion & Strength The effect of different mix design parameters in predicting mix proportions by ACI method of concrete mix design and their strength attainment has been studied. The parametric study revealed that ACI method fails in rational proportioning of fine aggregate content where coarse aggregate … Read more