## Numerical Integration in Finite Element Analysis

NUMERICAL INTEGRATION Numerical Integration is of prime importance when we deal with Finite Element Analysis especially in case of ISOPARAMETRIC ELEMENTS. Gauss Quadrature formula is the most commonly used Numerical Integration schemes. In this method sampling points are located and weight factors are attached to it. The attached document carry sufficient examples to explain the … Read more

## Response Spectrum Analysis in STAAD explanation Video

Response Spectrum Analysis in STAAD explanation Video Methodology The design lateral shear force at each floor in each mode is computed by STAAD in accordance with the IS: 1893 (Part 1) -2002 (equation 7.8.4.5c and 7.8.4.5d.) Qik = Ak*fik*Pk*Wi STAAD utilizes the following procedure to generate the lateral seismic loads. User provides the value for … Read more

## Shape Functions or Interpolation Functions

Shape Functions or Interpolation Functions In FEA we discretize the solution region into finite elements. To conduct the analysis we assume a displacement model to approximately indicate the variations of the displacement within the element. The polynomial chosen to interpolate the field variables over the element are called shape functions. Denoted by[N], they establish the … Read more

## Classification of Earthquakes

Classification of Earthquakes BASED ON LOCATION: Interplate Intraplate An interplate earthquake is one that occurs at a plate boundary An intraplate earthquake is an earthquake that occurs in the interior of a tectonic plate Recurrence time is less Recurrence time is longer Interplate Earthquakes are recognized at surface Intraplate earthquakes are rarely recognized at the surface. This is because the faults are … Read more

## SOFT STOREY EFFECT DURING EARTHQUAKE

SOFT STOREY EFFECT In shaking a building, an earthquake ground motion will search for every structural weakness. These weaknesses are usually created by sharp changes in stiffness, strength and/or ductility, and the effects of these weaknesses are accentuated by poor distribution of reactive masses. Severe structural damage suffered by several modern buildings during recent earthquakes … Read more

## Measuring Earthquakes | Measuring Earthquake

Measuring Earthquakes The power (magnitude) of an earthquake is measured on the Richter scale, using an instrument called a seismometer.The Richter scale is numbered 0-10 with 10 being the most powerful. The Richter scale is logarithmic – an earthquake measuring 7 is 10 times more powerful than one measuring 6 and 100 times more powerful … Read more

## Structural Cracks and Classifications

Structural Cracks and Classifications A crack in a structural member introduces local flexibility that would affect vibration response of the structure. This property  may be used to detect existence of a crack together its location and depth in the structural member. The presence of a crack in a structural member alters the local compliance that … Read more

## Vibration Analysis of Structures

courtesy:Govardhana Rao Introduction to Vibration Analysis of Structures Civil engineering structures are always designed to carry their own dead weight, superimposed loads and environmental loads such as wind or waves. These loads are usually treated as maximum loads not varying with time and hence as static loads. In some cases, the applied load involves not … Read more

## The Dynamic Analysis Of Structures

Dynamic Analysis Of Structures Introduction to Dynamic Analysis Of Structures All real physical structures, when subjected to loads or displacements, behave dynamically.  The additional inertia forces, from Newton’s second law, are equal to the mass times the acceleration.  If the loads or displacements are applied very slowly then the inertia forces can be neglected and … Read more