Early Thermal Cracking in Concrete Explained [with Solved Example]

Early Thermal Cracking , PC- Jon Knights Materials Consulting Ltd

Early-age Thermal Cracking, usually termed as Early Thermal Cracking is a phenomenon in concrete structures, caused by excessive Tensile Strain in a concrete section above the Tensile capacity of concrete as a result of restraining thermal contraction or due to differential temperature within the cross section. There are several factors that can influence ETC in … Read more

Calculate Minimum Bar Spacing for Bundle Bars in Cast-in Place Concrete

Bundle Bars Minimum Bar Spacing

How to calculate Minimum Bar Spacing for Bundle Bars in Cast-in Place Concrete as per AASHTO provisions. Minimum Bar Spacing As per AASHTO LRFD, section 5.10 the minimum bar spacing for bundled bars shall be calculated based on the derived diameter instead of calculating from individual diameters. Example Calculation For example if we are using … Read more

What are the advantages of Integral Bridge over Bearing System in Bridges?

Series of integral concrete arches

Advantages of piers constructed monolithically, i.e. integral bridges with the bridge deck over usage of bearings? Integral Bridge, piers constructed monolithically with the bridge deck are advantageous in the following ways: Bearing replacement is one of the direct cost involved in the maintenance of bridges, and the one which worries the contractors. Using integral bridge … Read more

What is Resilience and Modulus of Resilience?

Resilience and Modulus of Resilience

Resilience and Modulus of Resilience Resilience. Resilience is the total elastic strain energy which can be stored in the given volume of metal and can be released after unloading. it is also equal to area under load deflection curve within elastic limit. Modulus of Resilience is defined as elastic strain energy per unit volume and … Read more

What is Proof Stress?

Proof Stress and Proof Resilience

Proof Stress In some ductile materials such as Aluminium, Copper, Mild Steel, the yield point cannot be clearly defined during tension test, therefore yield stress is Unknown. For such metals design stress called PROOF stress is calculated using offset method. An offset of strain equal to given permissible plastic strain, eg at 0.2% for Al, … Read more

Index Properties of Soil & how are they determined?

Index Properties of Soil & how are they determined? These are properties, which are used for classification and identification of Soil. Index properties are the properties of soil that help in identification and classification of soil. These properties are generally determined in the laboratory. In situ density and relative density require undisturbed sample extraction while … Read more

Formation of Soil & Types of Soil

Types of Soils Triangle

Formation of Soil & Types of Soil The process of soil formation is called Pedogenesis. Pedogenesis is a cyclic phenomenon called geological cycle. Geological cycle has four cyclic steps. Erosion->Transportation->Deposition->Upheaval->Erosion Soil mechanics is the branch of civil engineering which deals with the study of characteristics , classification and behavior of soil under loaded and unloaded … Read more

Dynamic Analysis Methods for Seismic Bridge Design

Sutong Bridge china

Dynamic Analysis Methods for Seismic Bridge Design Depending on the seismic zone, geometry, and importance of the bridge, the following analysis methods may be used for seismic bridge design: The single-mode method (single-mode spectral and uniform-load analysis) assumes that seismic load can be considered as an equivalent static horizontal force applied to an individual frame … Read more