Fineness Modulus of Sand – Definition, Test Procedure and Significance

Seive-shaker-to-estimate-Fineness-Modulus-of-Sand

The fineness modulus of a fine aggregate is defined as an index number that indicates the average or mean size of the sand particles. It is determined by carrying out the sieve analysis test using standard IS sieves. The fineness modulus is an estimate of the amount of aggregate required to proportion mix designs; it … Read more

Windows – Functions, components | Classification of Windows

Double-hung-windows

Windows are doors that have glass installations in the openings to let light and air in and let people see outside. For ventilation, there often have openings. They consist of a frame that slides into the wall opening and shutters made of glass or wood in connection to the frame with hinges. Functional Requirements of … Read more

Types of Soil – Sand, Silt, Clay & Loam | Properties & Applications

Types of Soil – Sand, Silt, Clay & Loam

The organic and inorganic components of the earth’s surface that provide the environment for plant growth are referred to as soil. There are various types of soils on earth. It steadily develops through time, is composed of several diverse materials, and varies as a result of these factors. The breaking down of rocks into their … Read more

Biofuel & Plastic Waste Management | Production of Bio-Fuel | PPT

Synthetic bio fuel produced in Laboratory

Importance of Plastic Waste Management Plastic is one of the most successful manufacturing materials in post-world war era. It’s due to its high specific-strength, toughness, chemical inertness and cost-effectiveness. On the other hand, global production of plastic material has increased more than 200-fold from 1950 to 2020. Today over 100 million tonnes of plastic is … Read more

Soil Nailing | Principles | Advantages

Soil-nailing-done-to-protect-the-highway

Soil Nailing Soil nailing is a ground improvement technique which is used to reinforce soil to make it more stable. Soil nailing is used for slopes, excavations, retaining walls etc. to make it more stable. The faces of steep slopes are usually protected by shotcrete and mesh for temporary works and by either cast-in-place concrete … Read more

Vibro Stone Columns | Ground Improvement

Installation of Vibro Stone Columns by Vibroflot

Vibro Stone Columns To improve the load bearing capacity of in-situ soils and fills, Vibro stone columns are designed and are used. These columns reduce the differential settlements of non-homogeneous and compressible soils which allows the use of shallow footings and thinner base slabs. For the construction of Vibro stone columns, the vibrator is made … Read more

Calculation of Lap length in Reinforced Concrete Structures

steel bars overlapped

Lap length in Reinforced Concrete Lap length is one of the important term in the reinforcement. This is usually confused with another important term called development length and anchorage length. In this article, the lap lengths of bars is discussed. During the placement of steel in Reinforced concrete structure, if the required length of single … Read more

Types of Dams | Classification of Reservoirs

Nagarjunasagar Dam

Types of Dams A dam is a hydraulic structure or assembly that is constructed across a river to form a reservoir on its upstream side for confining water for various purposes like Hydropower, water supply, flood control, navigation, fishing and recreation, irrigation. Dams are constructed depending on the purpose for which they are used. Different … Read more

Loads on Building for Modeling | Structure Load Calculation | Analyze Building | Excel Spreadsheet

Loads on the building

Calculation of Building Loads The loads on building, may be a residential or any type of structure, are mainly classified into vertical and horizontal loads. The vertical loads are the dead and live load. The horizontal loads are the earthquake and the wind loads. This is the general classification of loads. In this article, some … Read more