Fineness Modulus of Sand – Definition, Test Procedure and Significance


The fineness modulus of a fine aggregate is defined as an index number that indicates the average or mean size of the sand particles. It is determined by carrying out the sieve analysis test using standard IS sieves. The fineness modulus is an estimate of the amount of aggregate required to proportion mix designs; it … Read more

Types of Soil – Sand, Silt, Clay & Loam | Properties & Applications

Types of Soil – Sand, Silt, Clay & Loam

The organic and inorganic components of the earth’s surface that provide the environment for plant growth are referred to as soil. There are various types of soils on earth. It steadily develops through time, is composed of several diverse materials, and varies as a result of these factors. The breaking down of rocks into their … Read more

Soil Nailing | Principles | Advantages


Soil Nailing Soil nailing is a ground improvement technique which is used to reinforce soil to make it more stable. Soil nailing is used for slopes, excavations, retaining walls etc. to make it more stable. The faces of steep slopes are usually protected by shotcrete and mesh for temporary works and by either cast-in-place concrete … Read more

Vibro Stone Columns | Ground Improvement

Installation of Vibro Stone Columns by Vibroflot

Vibro Stone Columns To improve the load bearing capacity of in-situ soils and fills, Vibro stone columns are designed and are used. These columns reduce the differential settlements of non-homogeneous and compressible soils which allows the use of shallow footings and thinner base slabs. For the construction of Vibro stone columns, the vibrator is made … Read more

All About Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) & Parameters

Construction of the A5 highway east bypass of Biel; 12.6 m diameter drill head of TBM © Chriusha (Хрюша) CC-BY-SA-3.0

Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) A TBM is a massive set of complex equipment assembled together to excavate a tunnel, often called as “Mole”. Major components of this Tunnel Boring Machine includes Cutter head, with cutting discs/tools and Muck buckets to carry and dispose excavated muck Power supply Systems Cutter head rotation & thrust Bracing system … Read more

Pavement Design in Road Construction – Design Parameters

Pavement Design

Pavement Design in Road Construction BY Kiran Biradar Introduction Pavement design is the major component in the road construction. Nearly one-third or one-half of the total cost of construction , so careful consideration should be taken in design of pavement. Type of pavements: Flexible pavement Rigid pavement Semi-rigid pavement Factors which affect the selection of … Read more

Ballast Specification for High Axle Load & High Speed ≥ 250kmph – Seminar

Typical Cross Sections Of High Speed Tracks With Sub-ballast

Ballast Specification For High Axle Load & High Speed ≥ 250kmph submitted by PONAMALA RAVI KUMAR Introduction Indian Railway has embarked upon ambitious modernization plan to improve the carrying capacity of the existing network besides construction of dedicated Freight Corridors. In order to achieve the objective of carrying more freight & passenger traffic, designing the … Read more

Bituminous Ballast & Applications in Railway Construction

Bituminous Ballast & Applications in Railway Construction

Bituminous Ballast & Applications in Railway Construction Bituminous Ballast Bituminous ballast consists of mixture of aggregate and bitumen. The mineral aggregate varies from very fine dust (filler) to a maximum particle size, which is usually around 40 mm. By varying the composition of the mixture, the ratio of the various constituents and the particle size … Read more

Building Analysis on Staad with different Soil Conditions – Analytical Study

Building Analysis on Staad with Raft Foundations

Seminar on Building Analysis on Staad with Raft Foundations – By Ankit Suri , Supervised By Dr.S.K. Tiwari Problem Definition And Structural Modelling STRUCTURAL MODEL Three-dimensional structure is modeled for the analysis utilizing the STAAD Pro software. The plan dimensions of the building are 34.92 m x 16.85 m. The Structure has 10 (G+9) stories … Read more