# Civil Engineering Undergraduate – Semester 3

## MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

### Module 1

#### Tension, compression & shear

Types of external loads – self weight – internal stresses – normal and shear stresses – strain – Hooke’s law – Poisson’s ratio – relationship between elastic constants – stress strain diagrams working stress – elongation of bars of constant and varying sections – statically indeterminate problems in tension and compression – assembly and thermal stresses – strain energy in tension, compression and shear.

### Module 2

#### Analysis of stress and strain

Stress on inclined planes for axial and biaxial stress fields – principal stresses – Mohr’s circle of stress – principal strains – strain rosette – principal stress/strain problem as an eigenvalue problem.

#### Bending moment and shear force

Different types of beams – shear force and bending moment diagrams for simply supported overhanging and cantilever beams – relationship connecting intensity of loading, shearing force and bending moment – shear force and bending moment diagrams for statically determinate plane frames.

### Module 3

#### Stresses in laterally loaded symmetrical beams

Theory of simple bending – limitations – bending stresses in beams of different cross sections – moment of resistance- beams of uniform strength – beams of two materials – shearing stresses in bending – principal stresses in bending –

strain energy due to bending.

#### Unsymmetrical bending

Shear flow – shear centre – determination of shear centre for simple sections.

### Module 4

#### Theory of columns

Axial loading of short strut – long columns – differential equation of the elastic curve – Euler’s formula – eccentric loading – direct and bending stresses – buckling load as an eigenvalue problem.

#### Torsion

Torsion of circular solid and hollow shafts – power transmission – strain energy in shear and torsion – close coiled and open coiled helical springs.

#### Thin and thick cylinders

Lame’s equation – stresses in thick cylinders due to internal and external pressures – compound cylinders – shrink fit – wire wound pipes and cylinders.

### References

- Gere, J.M., Mechanics of Materials, Thomson, Singapore, 2001.
- Popov, E.P., Mechanics of Materials, Prentice Hall India, New Delhi, 2002.
- Timoshenko, S.P., and Young, D.H., Elements of Strength of Materials, East West Press, New Delhi, 2003.
- Beer, F. P. and Johnston, E. R., Mechanics of Materials, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2005
- Hearn, E. J., Mechanics of Materials Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1982.
- Nash, W. A., Strength of Materials, Schaum’s Outline Series, McGraw Hill, New York, 1988.

## MECHANICS OF FLUIDS

### Module 1

Fluids – Definition – Types and properties. Fluid as a continuum – Control volume concept. Fluid Statics- Fluid pressure- Measurement of pressure- Hydrostatic forces on immersed surfaces-Application of fluid pressure analysis in engineering problems. Buoyancy and stability of immersed and floating bodies, Pressure in case of accelerated rigid body motion.

Fluid kinematics- Methods of describing fluid motion – Types of motion, Inviscid flows, Velocity and acceleration- Continuity equation- Potential flows-Velocity potential and Stream function. Cauchy Reimann equations – Flownet- Circulation and vorticity.

### Module 2

Fluid dynamics, Types of forces, Forces influencing fluid motion- Energy and Head-Energy correction factor, Euler and Bernoulli’s equations. Application of Bernoulli’s equation. Flow measurement, Linear momentum equations, Momentum correction factor, Application of momentum equation.

### Module 3

Pipe flow- Introduction – Laminar and turbulent flows – Reynolds’ number, Head loss. Major loss in pipe flow- Friction loss, Minor losses, Total energy and hydraulic gradient line, Compound pipes, Pipes in series and parallel, Branching pipes, Pipe networks.

### Module 4

Introduction to boundary layer theory – Boundary layer growth in flow over a plate, Flow past immersed bodies. Dimensional analysis and similitude – Methods of dimensional analysis, Dimensionless numbers. Principles of similarity- Modelling using Reynolds and Froude laws, Distorted models and scale effects.

### References

- Shames, I.H., Mechanics of Fluids, McGraw Hill ,New York, 1992
- Streeter, V. L., and Wylie, E. B., Fluid Mechanics, McGraw Hill , New York, 1985.
- Subramanya, K., Theory and Applications of Fluid Mechanics, , McGraw Hill , New York,. 1992.
- Massey, B. S., John Ward-Smith, Nelson Thornes Ltd, UK, 2001
- Modi, P. N., and Seth, S. M., Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics, Standard Book House, New Delhi, 2005

## BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

### Module 1

Bricks- IS classifications – Properties and testing – Types of bricks – Tiles – Manufacture, properties and uses – aerocon blocks- Types of tiles ; Ceramic products – Lime – Classification – Manufacture, properties and uses ; Plastics – properties – reinforced plastics- uses- light roofing materials – glass- manufacture – testing –geosynthetics – classification – aluminum composite panels – uPVC panels – industrial timber products –manufacture and properties

### Module 2

Cement – Ingredients – Manufacture – Types of cement – Properties and testing – Uses ; Mortar – Sand – Properties -Types of mortar and uses ; Concrete – Properties of fresh concrete and tests – Proportioning of concrete mixes -Properties of hardened concrete and tests – Recent developments in concrete ; Iron and steel – Structural sections -Properties and uses of structural steel – Recent developments in steel and concrete;

### Module 3

Foundation – Timbering of foundation trenches – Bearing capacity of soils – Improvement of bearing capacity -Settlement of foundation – Description of spread, grillage, raft and pile foundations; Brick and stone masonry -Bonds in brick work – Cavity walls – Lintels and arches; Concrete construction – Batching, mixing, placing,compacting and curing of concrete – form work – Precast concrete – Prestressed concrete – Recent developments in concreting; Partition walls – Types and features.

### Module 4

Floors and flooring – Different types and applications; Doors, windows and ventilators – Different types ; Finishing works; Building Failures – Concrete failure – Steel failure – Foundation failure – Other types of failures – Causes and Remedial measures – Building repairs – Shoring – Underpinning; Steel and concrete frames Slip form and lift slab constructions- trenchless technology, micro tunnelling; Fire proof construction – Fire load – Fire resisting properties of building materials – Fire extinguishing methods – Fire proof construction methods.

### References

- Rangwala, S. C., Engineering Materials, Charotar Publishing House, 1992.
- Punmia, B. C., Building Construction, Laxmi Publlications, New Delhi, 1999.
- Rangwala, S. C., Building Construction, Charotar Publishing House, 1992.
- Huntington, W. C., Building Construction, John Wiley, New York, 1959.
- Shetty, M. S., Concrete Technology, S.Chand & Co., New Delhi, 1992,
- Varghese, P C., Building Materials Prentice Hall of India, 2006

## SURVEYING

### Module 1

Introduction – classification of surveys – plane surveying – geodetic surveying – topographic surveying – reconnaissance – principle of working from whole to part – provision of control – conventional signs – chain survey – instruments – principles of chain survey – field book – plotting – tie line and check line – chaining and ranging – obstacles – chaining on sloping ground – errors in chain survey – uses of cross staff and optical square

### Module 2

Compass survey – prismatic compass – surveyor’s compass – whole circle and reduced bearing – true and magnetic bearing – dip and declination – local attraction – traversing – plotting – error of closure – graphical and analytical adjustments – plane table survey – instruments and accessories – different methods – orientation – advantages and disadvantages of plane tabling – two point problem – three point problem – errors in plane tabling – minor instruments – hand levels – clinometer – Ceylon ghat tracer – hypsometer – pantagraph -ediograph – box sextant – telescopic alidade

### Module 3

Levelling – definition of level surfaces – mean sea level – reduced level – bench marks – levelling instruments – temporary and permanent adjustments – fly leveling – booking – reduction of levels – corrections for refraction and curvature – reciprocal leveling – longitudinal levelling and cross sectioning – contour survey – definition – characteristics of contour – uses of contour – methods of contouring – direct and indirect interpolation – plotting – areas and volumes – trapezoidal rule – Simpson’s rule – area from latitude and departure – uses of planimeter – volumes – trapezoidal and prismoidal formula

#### Module 4

Theodolite surveying – study of theodolite – temporary and permanent adjustments – measurement of horizontal angles – method of repetition and reiteration – measurement of vertical angles – theodolite traverse – calculation of co-ordinates – corrections – traverse table – omitted measurements – tacheometric surveying – stadia system – fixed and movable hair methods – staff held vertical and normal – instrument constants – analytic lens – tangential system – direct reading tacheometer – subtense bar – trigonometric leveling – various methods – E.D.M – total station.

### References

- Kanetkar, T. P., and Kulkarni, S. V., Surveying Vol I and II, Vidyarthigriha Prakashan, 2004
- Punmia, B. C., Surveying Vol I and II, Laxmi Pub, 1994.
- Arora, K. R., Surveying Vol I and II, Standard Book House, 1993
- Duggal, S. K., Surveying Vol 1, Tata – McGraw Hill, 2004.

## SURVEYING PRACTICAL – I

### List of Exercises

- Chain survey- Traversing and plotting of details
- Compass survey – Traversing with compass and plotting
- Plane table survey – Method of Radiation and Intersection
- Plane table survey – Solving three point problem
- Plane table survey – Solving two point problem
- Plane table survey – Traverse
- Levelling -Fly leveling – Plane of collimation method
- Levelling -Fly leveling – Rise and Fall method
- Levelling -Longitudinal and cross sectioning
- Levelling -Automatic levels
- Levelling- Contour surveying
- Theodolite surveying – Measurement of horizontal angle by method of repetition and reiteration.

## MATERIAL TESTING LABORATORY

### List of Exercises

1. Tests on aggregate for concrete

- Grain size distribution
- Specific gravity
- Density
- Voids
- Bulking
- Aggregate crushing value
- Aggregate impact value

2. Tests on cement

- Fineness
- Normal consistency
- Setting time
- Compressive strength

3. Test on Timber beam – Bending test

4. Tests on tiles – Dimension, Transverse Strength, Water Absorption and Crazing

5. Tests on bricks – Crushing strength, water absorption and efflorescence

6. Tests on metals – Hardness test and impact test