Topics from Surveying
Introduction, classification of surveys, plane surveying, geodetic surveying, topographic surveying, reconnaissance, principle of working from whole to part, provision of control, conventional signs, chain survey, instruments, principles of chain survey, field book, plotting, tie line and check line, chaining and ranging, obstacles, chaining on sloping ground, errors in chain survey, uses of cross staff and optical square
Compass survey, prismatic compass, surveyor’s compass, whole circle and reduced bearing, true and magnetic bearing, dip and declination, local attraction, traversing, plotting, error of closure, graphical and analytical adjustments, plane table survey, instruments and accessories, different methods, orientation, advantages and disadvantages of plane tabling, two point problem, three point problem, errors in plane tabling – minor instruments, hand levels, clinometer, Ceylon ghat tracer, hypsometer, pantagraph, ediograph, box sextant, telescopic alidade
Levelling, definition of level surfaces, mean sea level, reduced level, bench marks, levelling instruments, temporary and permanent adjustments, fly leveling, booking, reduction of levels, corrections for refraction and curvature, reciprocal leveling, longitudinal levelling and cross sectioning, contour survey, definition, characteristics of contour, uses of contour, methods of contouring, direct and indirect interpolation, plotting, areas and volumes, trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s rule, area from latitude and departure, uses of planimeter, volumes, trapezoidal and prismoidal formula
Theodolite surveying, study of theodolite, temporary and permanent adjustments, measurement of horizontal angles, method of repetition and reiteration, measurement of vertical angles, theodolite traverse, calculation of coordinates, corrections, traverse table, omitted measurements, tacheometric surveying, stadia system, fixed and movable hair methods, staff held vertical and normal, instrument constants, analytic lens, tangential system, direct reading tacheometer, subtense bar, trigonometric leveling, various methods, E.D.M, total station.
- Kanetkar, T. P., and Kulkarni, S. V., Surveying Vol I and II, Vidyarthigriha Prakashan, 2004
- Punmia, B. C., Surveying Vol I and II, Laxmi Pub, 1994.
- Arora, K. R., Surveying Vol I and II, Standard Book House, 1993
- Duggal, S. K., Surveying Vol 1, Tata, McGraw Hill, 2004.