Loads on bridge decks
The loads on a bridge deck are made up of:
the weight of the bare concrete structure.
Superimposed dead loads;
the weight of permanent loads applied to the bare concrete structure, such as parapets, footpaths, road surfacing etc. These loads do not contribute to the strength of the deck.
transient vehicular, rail or pedestrian loads applied to the deck. Live loads may be uniformly distributed along the deck (referred to in the text as udl), corresponding to a busy traffic lane or to a long train, or concentrated,
principally wind and earthquake.