Diagonal Cracks in Foundation and Walls

Diagonal Crack at the corner of a strip footing

Diagonal Cracks in Foundation and Walls Diagonal cracking is an inclined crack beginning at the tension surface of a concrete member. Steep diagonal cracks appear in concrete foundation due to point loads that exceed the compressive strength of the concrete. This type of failure, known as settlement, can happen due to “volume changes in clay soils … Read more

Shotcrete – Concrete Repairing Techniques

Shotcrete in Concrete Repair Shotcrete is defined as “mortar or concrete pneumatically projected at high speed onto a surface” (American Concrete Institute, 1990). There are two basic types of shotcrete—dry mix and wet mix. In dry mix shotcrete, the dry cement, sand, and coarse aggregate, if used, are premixed with only sufficient water to reduce dusting. This mixture is … Read more

Masonry Wall – Types, Failure Mechanisms & Advantages

Brick Masonry Wall

Masonry Wall – Types, Failure Mechanisms & Advantages Submitted By-Bhawnesh Kuldeep The masonry walls is built of individual blocks of materials such as stone, brick, concrete, hollow blocks, cellular concrete etc., usually in horizontal courses cemented together with some form of mortar. Advantages Of Masonry Wall The use brick and stone can increase the thermal … Read more

Techniques for Rehabilitation & Repair Of Structures

Guniting Flow Chart

Techniques for Rehabilitation & Repair Of Structures -submitted by Shereef MI , – K.S.R. College Of Engineering Introduction The success of repair activity depends on the identification of the root cause of the deterioration of the concrete structures. If this cause is properly identified, satisfactory repairs can be done for the improvement of strength and … Read more

2011 Sikkim Earthquake – Himalayan earthquake

Strengthening of Existing Masonry

2011 Sikkim Earthquake – Himalayan earthquake The 2011 Sikkim earthquake also known as the 2011 Himalayan earthquake, was a magnitude 6.9 (Mw) , Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, near the border of Nepal and the Indian state of Sikkim At 18:10 IST (12:40 UTC) on Sunday, 18 September. The quake came just a few days after an … Read more

Sikkim Earthquake Of 14 February 2006

Sikkim Earthquake February 2006 location

Sikkim Earthquake Of 14 February 2006 Moderate earthquake (reported as Mw 5.3 by USGS and as ML 5.7 by IMD)  occurred in the state of Sikkim (India) on February 14 2006 at 06:25:23 a.m. local time.  At 27.35°N 88.35°E, near Ralang (South Sikkim), with a focal depth of 30 km (www.usgs.gov)  At 27.7°N 88.8°E, near … Read more

IS Codes Used In Mix Proportioning & their Uses

IS Codes Used In Mix Proportioning IS 456 : 2000 Code of Practice for Plain & Reinforced Concrete Exposure Conditions Table 5 – Minimum Cement Content & Max. w/c ratio IS 10262: 2009 Mix Proportioning – Guidelines Table 1 – Standard Deviation Table 2 – Max. Water Content Table 3 – Vol. fraction of Coarse … Read more

Rehabilitation and Repair of RC, Steel and Pre-stressed Bridges

shows concrete jacketing of a column

Rehabilitation of RC, Steel and Pre-stressed Bridges Introduction Modern bridge infrastructure comprises of primarily concrete (reinforced or pre-stressed) and steel structures. Over the service life of a bridge, its constituent materials are continually subjected to fatigue and wear-tear due to dynamic vehicular loads. Overloading due to increase in wheel loads and regular exposure to aggressive external environment … Read more

Concrete Ingredients and Mixing of Concrete

Aggregate Industries

Concrete Ingredients and Mixing of Concrete Definitions of Terms Associated with the Materials used in Concrete A.Portland Cement: a dry powder made by burning limestone and clay, and then grinding and mixing to an even consistency. B.Concrete: a mixture of stone aggregates, sand, portland cement, and water that hardens as it dries. C.Masonry: refers to … Read more