Sprinkler Irrigation is a method of applying irrigation water which is similar to rainfall. Pressurized irrigation through devices called sprinklers. Sprinklers are usually located on pipes called laterals.
Suitable slopes Sprinkler irrigation is adaptable to any farmable slope, whether uniform or undulating.
Suitable soil Sprinklers are best suited to sandy soils with high infiltration rate
Suitable irrigation water A good clean supply of water, free of suspended sediments.
Sprinkler drop sizes
As water sprays from a sprinkler it breaks up into small drops between 0.5 and 4.0 mm in size.Large drops can damage delicate crops and soils and so in such conditions it is best to use the smaller sprinklers.Drop size is also controlled by pressure and nozzle size.
Sprinkler System Capacity
- Peak crop water requirements during the growing season.
- Effective crop rooting depth.
- Texture and infiltration rate of the soil.
- The available water-holding capacity of the soil
- If the water source is a one or more wells, the well or wells’ pumping capacity
Limitations of Sprinkler Irrigation System
- Regulatory approval may be difficult to obtain because of the potential of direct release for contaminants to the atmosphere.
- Ponding of wastewater may result from heavy irrigation.
- Metal contaminated wastewater can’t be treated.
- Performance may be effected by temperature.
Sprinkler irrigation in India
- Sprinkler irrigation in 1985 -0.23 mha
- Sprinkler irrigation in 1998 – 0.67 mha
- UP state alone accounts for about 27.70 percent in the India’s total potential of Sprinkler irrigation.
- Devices (usually brass or plastic) with one or more small diameter nozzles
- Drive or range nozzle (hits sprinkler arm and throws water out farther)
- Spreader nozzle (optional; Applies more water close to the sprinkler)
- Trajectory angles
- Part-circle sprinklers
- Used in all types of irrigation, but especially agricultural crops