Concrete as a Structural Material | Advantages | Types

Concrete as a Structural Material

Concrete Material
Concrete Material


  • Concrete is an artificial conglomerate stone made essentially of Portland cement, water, and aggregates.
  • It is a Composite material that consists essentially of a binding medium within which aggregates are embedded
  • Binder is formed from a mixture of hydraulic cement and water.

Concrete as a Structural Material

Most widely used construction material.Last year in the U.S. 63 million tons of Portland cement were converted into 500 million tons of concrete. Total world consumption of concrete last year is estimated at three billion tons. Estimated present consumption of concrete in the world is 55. billion tons every year

Why Concrete most widely used engineering material?

Concrete possesses excellent resistance to water

  • Aqueducts and waterfront retaining walls
  • Dams, canal linings, and pavements
  • Structural elements exposed to moisture, such as piles, foundations, footings, floors, beams, columns, roofs, exterior walls, and pipes

Ease with which structural concrete elements can be formed into a variety of shapes and sizes

  • Freshly made concrete is of a plastic consistency
  • Flow into prefabricated formwork
  • Formwork can be removed for reuse
  • The cheapest and most readily available material on the job
  • Aggregate, water, and Portland cement are relatively inexpensive and are commonly available
  • Cost may be as low as U.S. $60 to $70 per cubic meter

Advantages Of  Concrete

  • Maintenance. Concrete does not corrode, needs no surface treatment, and its strength increases with time; therefore, concrete structures require much less maintenance
  • Fire resistance. The fire resistance of concrete is perhaps the most important single aspect of offshore safety
  • Resistance to cyclic loading

Types of Concrete

Based on unit weight,

  • Normal-weight concrete – 2400 kg/m3
  • Lightweight concrete – 1800 kg/m3
  • Heavyweight concrete – 3200 kg/m3

Based on compressive strength,

  • Low-strength concrete: less than 20 MPa
  • Moderate-strength concrete: 20 to 40 MPa
  • High-strength concrete: more than 40 MPa


Concrete is an intimate mixture of

  • Cement
  • Fine Aggregate
  • Coarse Aggregate
  • Water
  • Admixtures


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