Bio Diesel

Bio Diesel

BIO DIESEL A fuel for future

Introduction of biodiesel

Bio Diesel

Bio Diesel

•  Alternative fuel for diesel oil
•  Made from vegetable oil or animal fat
•  Meets health effect testing
•  Lower emissions, high flash point, safer
•  Biodegradable, non toxic
•  Miscible with petro diesel in all ratios

History of biodiesel

• Investigated as diesel fuels before the energy crisis of the 1970s and early 1980s
• Rudolf diesel: inventor of diesel engine
• French Otto company in 1900 operated a small diesel engine on peanut oil
• Gained little attention due to widespread availability and low cost of petroleum diesel fuel

How diesel engine works

• Fuel is ignited by hot air; the air is heated by compression
• Ignition should begin as soon as possible.
• If it does not, the entire charge of fuel become thoroughly mixed with air, and when it does ignite, the pressure rise will be much steeper than it would have been had ignition occurred earlier.
• So a desirable property of a diesel fuel is that it ignite quickly.

Biodiesel Production

• Four methods to reduce the high viscosity: blending with  petro diesel, pyrolysis, micro emulsification and transesterification
• Only transesterification reaction lead to the formation of bio diesel
• Transesterification can proceed by base or acid catalysis
• In homogeneous catalysis, alkali catalysis  is a much more rapid process than acid catalysis

Transesterification

Chemistry of Triglycerides—

• It is a reversible reaction
• Pseudo-first-order or second-order kinetics, depending on the molar ratio of alcohol to oil, the reverse reaction is second order.
•For transesterification to give maximum yield, the alcohol should be free of moisture and the FFA content of the oil should be <0.5%.
• Standard parameters for methanol based transesterification are 60°C reaction temperature and 6:1 methanol: oil molar ratio

Feed stock

LIPID REACTANT

Typical  lipid  feed stocks are  refined vegetable oils

I.Rapeseed  and  sunflower oils are used in the European Union
II. Palm oil predominates in biodiesel production in tropical countries
III. Soybean oil and animal fats is the major feed stocks in the United States

Exhaust Emission

• Much cleaner than conventional fossil fuel
• Reduces unburned hydrocarbons (93% less),  carbon monoxide (50% less) and particulate matter (30% less) in exhaust fumes, as well as cancer-causing PAH (80% less) and nitrated PAH compounds (90% less)
• Sulphur dioxide emissions are eliminated

Advantages

Recipe to make Biodiesel

Conclusions

•  Bio-diesel blending in Diesel improves most of the Fuel properties
•  Mass emissions of carbon monoxide and particulates found lower with Biodiesel blends, but NOx increased
•  Due to low energy content, high fuel consumption
•  Its Price is higher, hence not in practiced

 

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