Water Security Under Uncertainity Conditions
Why It Is Needed
Water is essential for life. People, animals, and plants all need water to live and to grow.
If people do not have enough water for their daily needs, they face hardship and serious illnesses. And if the available water is not safe because it is contaminated with germs, worms, or toxic chemicals — this can also lead to many illnesses.
The water problem – There are some problems related to need of water security-
1) 1.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to water.
2) 2.6 billion people lack basic sanitation
3) 1.8 million children die each year as a result of diarrhea
4) 443 million school days are lost each year from water-related illness
•Hurricane:- it caused large loss of life, ruptured leaves and led to serious water quality consequence.
•Earthquake:- it affects water distribution system.
•Wildfire:- due to this soil losses its fertility, increase CO2 amount & evapotranspiration also occur, creates water scarcity.
•Contaminants:- Heavy rains and flooding could create particularly severe water contamination problems that can be fatal.
•Climate change:- water security strategies need also to consider events related to extreme drought. All these threats are interconnected.
Man Made Hazards
•Attacks on exposed infrastructure. eg- Dam, water reservoirs.
•War and civil unrest.
•Human error and poor assessment
•Man-made threats currently are a major concern nowadays.
•It is also a major concerning hazard because Victims may not know they have been affected until years later.
•Due to failure of infrastructure, Hazardous chemical mix with water, it causes for water scarcity.
Plan improvements to your water supply
•When making a plan to improve the water supply, start with local resources including: local water sources, people with the skills to build improved wells or water storage tanks.
•water security depend on which problems are most urgent, or easiest to solve first.
•If the water is contaminated by germs, the source can be improved or the water can be treated to make it safe.
•If the water may be contaminated by chemicals the water should not be used until a water quality test can be done because it can cause many health problems like cholera, typhoid etc.
Water security against terrorist attack
These are the security procedure
Prevention -estimates the degree of risk and allocates personnel and financial resources to prevention based on each utility’s capabilities.
Detection-finished water is stored in relatively small quantities, generally in ground storage tanks of 10,000 to 1,000,000 gallons. Finished water storage can be protected by well-planned security measures for each water plant,
Response-Match your responses to:
1. Detection capabilities
2. Possible health impact
3. Pre-determined required action
How to protect groundwater sources
•If the surface water is contaminated than the best alternate is to use ground water.
•Groundwater is usually free of germs because it is filtered when it seeps through sand and soil.
•However, groundwater can be contaminated by natural minerals such as arsenic, by leaking sewer pipes, septic tanks or latrines, by waste dumps, or by industrial chemicals.
How to protect a spring
•Springs are where groundwater naturally comes out to the surface.
•Spring water can be considered safe unless it is contaminated at the surface.
•Protect the area around the spring and plant trees near the spring to prevent erosion.
•Build a spring box to capture the water.
•Global Water Partnership: http://www.gwpforum.org
•Cap-Net- Capacity Building for Integrated Water Resource Management: http://www.cap-net.org
•World Bank/UNDP Water and Sanitation Programme: http://www.wsp.org/
•World Water Assessment Program: http://www.unesco.org/water/wwap
•Gender and Water Alliance: http://www.genderandwater.org