Irrigation Technology in Israel

Irrigation Technology in Israel

PhysiographyIrrigation Technology in Israel

  • —Area of 20,770 km2
  • —Population of about 6.0 million , 90% lives in urban areas and 10% in rural areas
  • —Land is divisible into three longitudinal strips running from north to south, comprising a coastal plain, a long inland escarpment and a large desert area in the south.
  • —Main river is the jordan
  • —Mountains are the judean hills, carmel mountain and galilee mountains.
  • —Flat in the coastal plain and flat to hilly

Water Resources

  • —Average annual precipitation:- about 10,000 MCM,
  • —Of which 60 % evaporates,
  • — 10 % flows down the dry river beds ,  30 % seeps into the ground
  • —The kineret watershed contributes about 33% of the total resources.

Water Quality

Water Supply and Demand—

—Water Production and Supply:- 2,000 MCM, of which 75% were potable and rest is treated water.
—Water Demand:-  2000 MCM/year , about one half is used for agriculture and the remaining is used by the urban and industrial sectors.
—Agricultural Consumption:-  1250 MCM (60% of fresh resources, compared to 77% in the sixties), agriculture is still the largest consumer.

Irrigation Technology

  • —Low volume irrigation:- drip irrigation and micro-sprinklers
  • —Computer-assisted irrigation management .
  • —Soil and plant moisture sensors:- information on moisture.
  • —Automatic operation of the system when needed
  • —Fertigation via the irrigation systems
  • —Water metering and pricing policy

CHALLENGES AND DIFFERING PERSPECTIVES

  • —Increases in spatial and annual climate variability
  • —Higher frequency of extreme rainfalls and decreasing precipitation
  • —Decrease of rainfall because of environmental pollution.
  • —Winter temperature of 1.5°C in the coastal areas and 2.5°C in land.
  • —Rapid increase in population and urbanization,  pressure on natural resources
  • —An increase of undesirable chemical loads in soil and water because of fertilizers.

Advancement

  • —To avoid excess standing water
  • —To prevent exposure to water shortage.
  • —Pressurized irrigation with sprinklers and increasing water use efficiency
  • —To prevent soil salinization

 

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