Irrigation Technology in Israel
- Area of 20,770 km2
- Population of about 6.0 million , 90% lives in urban areas and 10% in rural areas
- Land is divisible into three longitudinal strips running from north to south, comprising a coastal plain, a long inland escarpment and a large desert area in the south.
- Main river is the jordan
- Mountains are the judean hills, carmel mountain and galilee mountains.
- Flat in the coastal plain and flat to hilly
- Average annual precipitation:- about 10,000 MCM,
- Of which 60 % evaporates,
- 10 % flows down the dry river beds , 30 % seeps into the ground
- The kineret watershed contributes about 33% of the total resources.
Water Supply and Demand
Water Production and Supply:- 2,000 MCM, of which 75% were potable and rest is treated water.
Water Demand:- 2000 MCM/year , about one half is used for agriculture and the remaining is used by the urban and industrial sectors.
Agricultural Consumption:- 1250 MCM (60% of fresh resources, compared to 77% in the sixties), agriculture is still the largest consumer.
- Low volume irrigation:- drip irrigation and micro-sprinklers
- Computer-assisted irrigation management .
- Soil and plant moisture sensors:- information on moisture.
- Automatic operation of the system when needed
- Fertigation via the irrigation systems
- Water metering and pricing policy
CHALLENGES AND DIFFERING PERSPECTIVES
- Increases in spatial and annual climate variability
- Higher frequency of extreme rainfalls and decreasing precipitation
- Decrease of rainfall because of environmental pollution.
- Winter temperature of 1.5°C in the coastal areas and 2.5°C in land.
- Rapid increase in population and urbanization, pressure on natural resources
- An increase of undesirable chemical loads in soil and water because of fertilizers.
- To avoid excess standing water
- To prevent exposure to water shortage.
- Pressurized irrigation with sprinklers and increasing water use efficiency
- To prevent soil salinization