Solid Waste Management In India

Solid Waste Management In India

Solid Waste Management In India

India’s Population  =  1027 Million

As per 2001 Census

Urban Population  =  285 Million

Urban Areas  =  5161

(Cities / Towns)

Solid Waste Management In India

Solid Waste Management In India

MAGNITUDE OF PROBLEM

–  Per capita waste generation increasing by   1.3%   per annum

–  With urban population increasing between   3 – 3.5% per annum

–  Yearly increase in waste generation is   around 5% annually

–  India produces 42.0 million tons of   municipal solid waste annually at present.

–  Per capita generation of waste varies from   200 gm to 600 gm per capita / day. Average   generation rate at 0.4 kg per capita per day   in 0.1 million plus towns.

–  Collection efficiency ranges between 50% to   90% of the solid waste generated.

–  Urban Local Bodies spend around Rs.500/-   to Rs.1500/- per ton on solid waste   management of which,

*  60-70% of the amount is on   collection   alone

*  20% – 30% on transportation

*  Hardly any fund is spent on   treatment and disposal of waste

–  Crude dumping of waste in most of the   cities

Characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste

Compostable / Bio-degradable =  30% – 55%

matter       (can be converted into manure)

Inert material      =  40% – 45% (to go to landfill)

Recyclable materials      =  5% – 10% (Recycling)

These percentages vary from city to city depending on food habits

PRESENT STATUS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT

–  STORAGE OF WASTE AT SOURCE IS LACKING

–  DOMESTIC WASTE  THROWN  ON STREETS

–  TRADE WASTE ON ROADS / STREETS

–  CONSTRUCTION  DEBRIS  LEFT  UNATTENDED

–  BIO-MEDICAL WASTE  DISPOSED IN  MUNICIPAL WASTE STREAM

–  INDUSTRIAL   WASTE   DISPOSED  OF  IN  OPEN AREAS

–  SEGREGATION OF RECYCLABLE WASTE AT SOURCE   NOT  DONE

–  PRIMARY  COLLECTION  OF WASTE NOT DONE AT PLACE OF GENERATION

–  DESIGN & LOCATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE STORAGE    DEPOTS INAPPROPRIATE, RESULTING IN LITTERING OF   GARBAGE .

–  STREET SWEEPING  NOT DONE EVERYDAY

–  WASTE  TRANSPORTATION DONE IN OPEN   VEHICLES

–  WASTE  PROCESSING  PARTIALLY  PRACTISED  IN    35   ULBs ONLY

–  FINAL DISPOSAL DONE THROUGH CRUDE DUMPING

–  RAG  PICKERS  COLLECT  RECYCLABLES  FROM MUNICIPAL BINS / DUMPSITES AND LITTER THE WASTE  CAUSING INSANITARY CONDITIONS

REASONS FOR IMPROPER MANAGEMENT OF WASTE

v  Lack of planning for waste management while planning   townships

v  Lack of proper institutional set up for   waste management,   planning and designing in urban local bodies

v  Lack of technically trained manpower

v  Lack of community involvement

v  Lack of expertise and exposure to city waste management   using modern techniques / best practices

v  Lack of awareness creation mechanism

v   Lack of Management Information Systems

v   Lack of funds with ULBs

v   Indifferent attitude of ULBs to levy user charges and   sustainability

 

RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE MANAGEMENT

1.  Possible Waste Management Options :

(a)  Waste Minimisation

(b)  Material Recycling

(c)  Waste Processing (Resource Recovery)

(d)  Waste Transformation

(e)  Sanitary Landfilling – Limited land availability is a constraint in Metro cities.

2.  Processing / Treatment should be  :

(i)  Technically sound

(ii)  Financially viable

(iii)  Eco-friendly / Environmental friendly

(iv)  Easy to operate & maintain by local community

(v)  Long term sustainability

RECOMMENDED APPROACHES TO WASTE PROCESSING & DISPOSAL

I  WEALTH FROM WASTE (PROCESSING OF ORGANIC WASTE)

(A)  WASTE TO COMPOST

(i)  AEROBIC / ANAEROBIC COMPOSTING

(ii)  VERMI-COMPOSTING

  (B)  WASTE TO ENERGY

(i)  REFUSE DERIVED FUEL (RDF) / PELLETIZATION

(ii)  BIO-METHANATION

II  RECYCLING OF WASTE

III  SANITARY LANDFILLING

IV  TREATMENT OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE SEPARATELY

INITIATIVES BY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

Bio-medical Waste Handling Rules, 1998 –   Notified

Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules,   2000 – Notified.

Reforms Agenda  (Fiscal, Institutional, Legal)

Technical Manual on Municipal Solid Waste   Management

Technology Advisory Group on Municipal   Solid   Waste Management

Inter-Ministerial Task Force on Integrated   Plant   Nutrient Management from city   compost.

Tax Free Bonds by ULBs permitted by   Government  of India

Income Tax relief to Waste Management agencies

Public-Private Partnership in SWM

Capacity Building

Urban Reforms Incentive Fund

Guidelines for PSP and setting up of Regulatory   Authority

Introduction of Commercial Accounting System in   ULBs & other Sector Reforms

Model Municipal Bye-Laws framed / circulated for   benefit of ULBs for adoption

Financial Assistance by Government of India –   12th Finance Commission Grants

MAIN ISSUES

–  ABSENCE OF SEGREGATION OF WASTE AT SOURCE

–  LACK   OF   TECHNICAL   EXPERTISE   AND       APPROPRIATE   INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENT

–  UNWILLINGNESS OF ULBs TO INTRODUCE PROPER  COLLECTION,    SEGREGATION, TRANSPORTATION   AND   TREATMENT / DISPOSAL SYSTEMS

–  INDIFFERENT ATTITUDE OF CITIZENS TOWARDS   WASTE   MANAGEMENT DUE TO LACK OF AWARENESS

–  LACK OF COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION TOWARDS   WASTE   MANAGEMENT AND HYGIENIC CONDITIONS

–  LACK OF FUNDS WITH ULBs

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