Flood Routing by Reservoir | Various flood routing Strategies

Flood Routing by Reservoir Safety Inspection of Dams The dams are national property – constructed for the development of the national economy and in which large investments and other resources have been deployed. The safety of the dam is a very important aspect for safeguarding the national investment and the benefits derived by the nation … Read more

Activated Sludge Process and Kinetics of ASP

Flow Diagram of ASP

Activated Sludge Process and Kinetics of ASP     Introduction Activated Sludge Process is the suspended-growth biological treatment process, based on providing intimate contact between the sewage and activated sludge. The Activated Sludge is the sludge obtained by settling sewage in presence of abundant O2 so as to enrich with aerobic micro-organisms. Activated sludge in … Read more

Pavement Design (with examples) | Complete Data

pavement purpose

Pavement Design (with examples) Outline Pavement Purpose Pavement Significance Pavement Condition Pavement Types Flexible Rigid Pavement Design Example Pavement Purpose Load support Smoothness Drainage Pavement Significance How much pavement? –        3.97 million Centerline miles in U.S. –        2.5 million miles (63%) are paved –        8.30 million lane-miles total –        Largest single use of HMA and … Read more

Rehabilitation and Repair of RC, Steel and Pre-stressed Bridges

shows concrete jacketing of a column

Rehabilitation of RC, Steel and Pre-stressed Bridges Introduction Modern bridge infrastructure comprises of primarily concrete (reinforced or pre-stressed) and steel structures. Over the service life of a bridge, its constituent materials are continually subjected to fatigue and wear-tear due to dynamic vehicular loads. Overloading due to increase in wheel loads and regular exposure to aggressive external environment … Read more

What Is Cement? Manufacturing, Composition & their Functions

Cement Clinkers

What Is Cement? Manufacturing, Constituents & their Functions Material with adhesive and cohesive  properties. Any material that binds or unites  – essentially like glue Function Of Cement to bind the sand and coarse aggregate together  to fill voids in between sand and coarse  aggregate particle  to form a compact mass Types of Cement 2 types … Read more

Elements of Theory of Elasticity (with solved examples)


Elements of Theory of Elasticity (with solved examples) Introduction: Applications of the finite element method include elasticity problems also. Theory of elasticity deals with the stress and displacements in elastic solids generated by external forces. Some Important Aspects in theory of elasticity: Stress Components There are two types of stresses acting on each face of … Read more

IRC Method Concrete Mix Design

IRC method

IRC Method Of Concrete Mix Design About IRC 44-1976 Primarily implemented in the design of Concrete Rigid Pavements on Road Construction. Flexural strength is more often specified than compressive strength in the design of concrete mixes for pavement construction. Basic Differences from IS method Strength Criteria– Checking of Flexural strength have more priority than Compressive … Read more

Concrete Ingredients and Mixing of Concrete

Aggregate Industries

Concrete Ingredients and Mixing of Concrete Definitions of Terms Associated with the Materials used in Concrete A.Portland Cement: a dry powder made by burning limestone and clay, and then grinding and mixing to an even consistency. B.Concrete: a mixture of stone aggregates, sand, portland cement, and water that hardens as it dries. C.Masonry: refers to … Read more

High Performance Concrete & Self-Compacting Concrete

High Performance Concrete

High Performance Concrete Concrete may be regarded as high performance for several different reasons: high strength, high workability high durability perhaps also improved visual appearance. High strength concrete (HSC) might be regarded as concrete with a strength in excess of 60MPa and such concrete can be produced as relatively normal concrete with a higher cement … Read more