What are Properties of Hardened Concrete|Governing Factors

Bridge Pier Substructure

Properties of Hardened Concrete Properties of hardened concrete are explained on the basis of its Strength and Performance under various types of force actions and conditions. Main parameters that are used to define the strength of concrete are Compressive Strength: Compressive strength of concrete is usually defined as characteristic compressive strength (fcu / fck). Which … Read more

Temporary Supporting Structures

Temporary Supporting Structures

Temporary Supporting Structures Classifications Formworks/shuttering Scaffolding Shoring Underpinning Form work-requirements Strength Rigidity Less leakage True to size Smooth surface Easy removal Supports Economy in formwork Forms of regular sizes and shapes Allow reuse Design structural components to allow use of commercially available forms Clean and oil forms after use Pre-fabricate the forms on the ground … Read more

Design fundamentals of sedimentation tanks

sedimentation tank

Design fundamentals of sedimentation tanks   What is sedimentation and sedimentation tank??? Sedimentation is a process used for various stages within a wastewater treatment plant to reduce the concentration of settleable and suspended matter. Sedimentation tanks, commonly referred to as clarifiers, are described as primary, intermediate and final clarifiers dependent upon the process stage. Primary … Read more

Formwork for Beams and Slabs

Formwork for Beams and Slabs

Formwork for Beams and Slabs Forms are molds to receive concrete in its’ plastic form. Formwork is temporary structure, as such, it is not normally shown on the drawings. Formwork Materials Wood Either all-wood or some wood components Plywood Aluminum Steel Plastics Lumber Designated by Cross Sections, Nominal Dimensions (prior to finishing) After cut length … Read more

How to select the Formwork System

Prefab Alum

How to select the Formwork System Why worry about the Choice of Forming System? Refer ppt below. What Choices Do I Have? Wall Forming Walls Loose Framing Prefabricated Panels Crane Set Gangs Wall Systems (Prefabricated Panels) Prefab Steel Panel Prefab Alum. Panel are durable for many reuses simplify and reduce the labor required studs and … Read more

Bridge Site Selection & Guidelines

Guidelines for Bridge Site Selection

Bridge Site Selection & Guidelines SURVEY • Social Feasibility Survey and • Technical Survey Both surveys are of equal importance. The social feasibility survey establishes community ownership and responsibility, and the technical survey ensures that bridge construction is sound and safe. SOCIAL FEASIBILITY SURVEY Level of local participation • size of area of influence • … Read more

Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson Ratio of concrete

Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson Ratio of Concrete (with example) Outline Find the modulus of Elasticity of concrete Find Poisson’s Ratio of Concrete Introduction Compressive Strength of Concrete –        Standardardized test of concrete  American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) –        Specifications include  Correct mix  Properly affixing strain gauges Properly capping the cylinder with sulfur … Read more

Bridge Engineering – Classification of Bridges

components of bridge

Bridge Engineering – Components of Bridge Structures A bridge is a structure providing passage over an obstacle without closing the way beneath. The required passage may be for a road, a railway, pedestrians, a canal or a pipeline. The obstacle to be crossed may be a river, a road, railway or a valley.  Classification of … Read more



Earthquakes Outline —  What is Earthquake —  Types of Seismic Waves —  Effects of Earthquakes —  Site Selection —  Building Construction Materials —  Building Planning | Earthquake Resistant Buildings —  Earthquake Resistant Techniques —  Summary and Conclusion What is Earthquake? Earthquake is a sudden tremor or movement of the earth’s crust, which originate naturally at … Read more