## Inelastic Seismic Response of Structures

Inelastic Seismic Response of Structures Under relatively  strong  earthquakes, structures undergo inelastic  deformation  due to  current seismic design philosophy. Therefore, structures should have sufficient ductility  to deform beyond the yield limit.  For understanding the ductility demand imposed by the  earthquake,  a  study  of  an  SDOF system  in inelastic range is of great help. The  inelastic  … Read more

## Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis – with simplified examples

Response Spectrum Method Of Analysis (Click here for Response SA in Staad Pro ) Introduction Response spectrum method is favoured by earthquake engineering community because of:  It provides a technique for performing an equivalent static lateral load analysis.  It allows a clear understanding of the contributions of different modes of vibration.  It offers a simplified … Read more

## Pascal’s Triangle for determining the appropriate displacement field in finite element analysis

For the convergence of solution in finite element analysis, the assumed displacement field should be isotropic . This is achieved if the components of the displacement field are complete polynomials. This is achieved by using PASCAL’s TRIANGLE. It is a technique of including the appropriate number of terms in the displacement model. It also gives … Read more

## Bituminous Road Deterioration

Bituminous Road Deterioration Base Types Granular Base Asphalt Base Asphalt Pavement Base Stabilized Base Surface Types and Materials Asphalt Concrete Hot Rolled Modified Asphalt Rubberized Asphalt Polymer Asphalt Concrete Soft Bitumen Mix (Cold Mix) Porous Asphalt Stone Mastic Distress Modes Surfacing Distress Cracking Ravelling Potholing Edge-Break Deformation Distress Rutting Roughness Pavement Surface Texture Distress Texture … Read more

## Shape functions for different elements used in finite element analysis

Shape functions or interpolation functions are functions used to represent behaviour of a field variable within an element. In finite element analysis we deal with different elements. The elements can be linear, quadratic, 8- noded, 9-noded etc. The shape function for these elements is required to be determined to draw a relationship between the nodal … Read more

## Fundamentals of Prestressed Concrete Bridge (with solved example)

Fundamentals of Prestressed Concrete Bridge (with solved example) Introduction: In prestressed concrete, a prestress force is applied to a concrete member and this induces an axial compression that counteracts all, or part of, the tensile stresses set up in the member by applied loading.  In the field of bridge engineering, the introduction of prestressed concrete … Read more

## Classical Rayleigh Ritz Method

Classical Rayleigh Ritz Method Introduction: Classical Rayleigh Ritz Method is named after Walther Ritz and Lord Rayleigh and is widely used. Classical Rayleigh Ritz Method is a method of finding displacements at various nodes based on the theorem of minimum potential energy. Departure from classical Rayleigh Ritz Method leads to FEM. The two departures are: … Read more

## Bituminous Materials and Bitumen | All About Bitumen & Types | Cutback Bitumen | Tar

Bituminous Materials & Bitumen Bituminous materials,classification and various terms used related to tar and bitumen. uses and applications of different bituminous materials in highway construction, origin and preparation of different grades of bitumen and tar. the rheology of bituminous  binders,adhesion,failures,weathering of bituminous road. material  admixtures,rubber,tar. introduction to recent development in highway materials Introduction growth of … Read more

## Portal Method of Analysis for Lateral Loads

Portal Method Of Analysis  For Lateral Loads Introduction portal frame Horizontal loads Shear force calculation BM Calculation Results Compare with Actual Results PORTAL METHOD OF ANALYSIS This method Presented by Albert Smith in the journals of “ Western society of  engineers” in 1915. Approximate method,Horizontal force PORTAL FRAME Portal frame can be defined as two-dimensional … Read more