Shrinkage Cracking in Concrete Structures | Long Term Effects

Shrinkage crack

Long-term Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete Internal or external restraints in a concrete structural element may resist free shrinkage of concrete, over time this leads to Shrinkage Cracking. In concrete structures, the volumetric reduction that happen due to the loss of moisture by evaporation is known as the shrinkage of concrete. This deformation is time dependent … Read more

Soil Nailing | Principles | Advantages


Soil Nailing Soil nailing is a ground improvement technique which is used to reinforce soil to make it more stable. Soil nailing is used for slopes, excavations, retaining walls etc. to make it more stable. The faces of steep slopes are usually protected by shotcrete and mesh for temporary works and by either cast-in-place concrete … Read more

Calculation of Lap length in Reinforced Concrete Structures

steel bars overlapped

Lap length in Reinforced Concrete Lap length is one of the important term in the reinforcement. This is usually confused with another important term called development length and anchorage length. In this article, the lap lengths of bars is discussed. During the placement of steel in Reinforced concrete structure, if the required length of single … Read more

Flat Slab Floors for Construction Efficiency | Advantages to Client

Prestressed Flat Slab Concrete Pouring Process

Flat Slab Construction In this fast growing infrastructure industry, efficiency in construction is utmost important. Flat slab floor systems reduces time for design & delivery, cost of constructions and improves quality of construction. Flat slabs outweighs other structural systems in terms of cost, time & flexibility in 3 main aspects, which are as follows. For … Read more

RCC Design Philosophies | Comparison of Working Stress Method and Limit State Method | Example for WSM & LSM

Waffle Slab Construction

Methods of RCC Design & Design Philosophies: RCC Structural Elements are designed by two methods or two Design Philosophies, Working Stress Method (WSM) Limit State Method (LSM) Working Stress method is the old way of designing, in present era structures are generally designed using Limit State Method. In WSM concrete is considered as elastic whereas … Read more

Practical Steps in Design of Concrete Buildings | Modelling | Applying Loads | Analysis

High Rise Multi Story Building with Raft base Model

Practical Steps in Design of Concrete Buildings Concrete is arguably the most important building material which plays an important role in all building structures. Its virtue is its versatility which is its ability to be moulded to take any shape required for various structural forms. The entire process of structural planning and design requires not … Read more

Steel Structures Vs Concrete Structures | Complete Comparison of Steel & Concrete

Steel Truss Structures

Concrete and Steel are one of the most common construction materials even in today, Steel Structures Vs Concrete Structures is an attempt to compare advantages and disadvantages of both materials from constriction and maintenance point of view. Concrete Structure Concrete is the second most used material for construction after water in the world. Concrete structure … Read more

Transition Curve in Highways | Purpose|Requirements |Example

Transition Curves employed in interchanges in the USA

Transition Curve Transition curve as the name suggests, is usually a horizontal curve in plan provided to allow transition from a straight alignment to a circular curve gradually. In other words, it is a curve which connects a with infinite radius and radius R. Transition curves are usually provided between a straight and curved track/roads. … Read more

Early Thermal Cracking in Concrete Explained [with Solved Example]

Early Thermal Cracking , PC- Jon Knights Materials Consulting Ltd

Early-age Thermal Cracking, usually termed as Early Thermal Cracking is a phenomenon in concrete structures, caused by excessive Tensile Strain in a concrete section above the Tensile capacity of concrete as a result of restraining thermal contraction or due to differential temperature within the cross section. There are several factors that can influence ETC in … Read more