Shrinkage Cracking in Concrete Structures | Long Term Effects

Shrinkage crack

Long-term Shrinkage Cracking of Concrete Internal or external restraints in a concrete structural element may resist free shrinkage of concrete, over time this leads to Shrinkage Cracking. In concrete structures, the volumetric reduction that happen due to the loss of moisture by evaporation is known as the shrinkage of concrete. This deformation is time dependent … Read more

Flat Slab Floors for Construction Efficiency | Advantages to Client

Prestressed Flat Slab Concrete Pouring Process

Flat Slab Construction In this fast growing infrastructure industry, efficiency in construction is utmost important. Flat slab floor systems reduces time for design & delivery, cost of constructions and improves quality of construction. Flat slabs outweighs other structural systems in terms of cost, time & flexibility in 3 main aspects, which are as follows. For … Read more

Practical Steps in Design of Concrete Buildings | Modelling | Applying Loads | Analysis

High Rise Multi Story Building with Raft base Model

Practical Steps in Design of Concrete Buildings Concrete is arguably the most important building material which plays an important role in all building structures. Its virtue is its versatility which is its ability to be moulded to take any shape required for various structural forms. The entire process of structural planning and design requires not … Read more

Steel Structures Vs Concrete Structures | Complete Comparison of Steel & Concrete

Steel Truss Structures

Concrete and Steel are one of the most common construction materials even in today, Steel Structures Vs Concrete Structures is an attempt to compare advantages and disadvantages of both materials from constriction and maintenance point of view. Concrete Structure Concrete is the second most used material for construction after water in the world. Concrete structure … Read more

What is Proof Stress?

Proof Stress and Proof Resilience

Proof Stress In some ductile materials such as Aluminium, Copper, Mild Steel, the yield point cannot be clearly defined during tension test, therefore yield stress is Unknown. For such metals design stress called PROOF stress is calculated using offset method. An offset of strain equal to given permissible plastic strain, eg at 0.2% for Al, … Read more

A presentation on Strut and Tie Models (S T M)

Strut and Tie

A presentation on Strut and Tie Models (S-T-M) •Introduction •Development •Design Methodology •IS and ACI provisions •Applications –Deep beams –Corbels –Beam-column joints •Hydrostatic state of stress –Nodal zone dimensions proportional to the applied compressive forces –One dimension by the bearing area –Other two, for a constant level of stress ‘p’ –Preselected strut dimensions , non … Read more

How to denote a Specific type of Weld, Various Weld Symbols

Fillet Weld all around

How to denote a Specific type of Weld, Various Weld Symbols You will be able to understand and use AWS welding symbols properly after reading this.  You will be able to draw the suitable symbols and make the proper welds from reading AWS blueprint symbols.  . SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES AND COMPETENCIES After completion of this unit, … Read more

Fundamentals of Prestressed Concrete Bridge (with solved example)


Fundamentals of Prestressed Concrete Bridge (with solved example) Introduction: In prestressed concrete, a prestress force is applied to a concrete member and this induces an axial compression that counteracts all, or part of, the tensile stresses set up in the member by applied loading.  In the field of bridge engineering, the introduction of prestressed concrete … Read more

Design of Square Footing with Axial Loading (Solved Example)

Square footing Dimensions.

Design of Square Footings Footing is the lower end of a column, pillar or wall which is enlarged with projecting courses so as to distribute the load. Below explained design of a concrete footing. See the attached document below for detailed explanation of design of square footing. Problem Design a square footing for a square … Read more