Calculation of Lap length in Reinforced Concrete Structures

steel bars overlapped

Lap length in Reinforced Concrete Lap length is one of the important term in the reinforcement. This is usually confused with another important term called development length and anchorage length. In this article, the lap lengths of bars is discussed. During the placement of steel in Reinforced concrete structure, if the required length of single … Read more

RCC Design Philosophies | Comparison of Working Stress Method and Limit State Method | Example for WSM & LSM

Waffle Slab Construction

Methods of RCC Design & Design Philosophies: RCC Structural Elements are designed by two methods or two Design Philosophies, Working Stress Method (WSM) Limit State Method (LSM) Working Stress method is the old way of designing, in present era structures are generally designed using Limit State Method. In WSM concrete is considered as elastic whereas … Read more

Practical Steps in Design of Concrete Buildings | Modelling | Applying Loads | Analysis

High Rise Multi Story Building with Raft base Model

Practical Steps in Design of Concrete Buildings Concrete is arguably the most important building material which plays an important role in all building structures. Its virtue is its versatility which is its ability to be moulded to take any shape required for various structural forms. The entire process of structural planning and design requires not … Read more

Steel Structures Vs Concrete Structures | Complete Comparison of Steel & Concrete

Steel Truss Structures

Concrete and Steel are one of the most common construction materials even in today, Steel Structures Vs Concrete Structures is an attempt to compare advantages and disadvantages of both materials from constriction and maintenance point of view. Concrete Structure Concrete is the second most used material for construction after water in the world. Concrete structure … Read more

Early Thermal Cracking in Concrete Explained [with Solved Example]

Early Thermal Cracking , PC- Jon Knights Materials Consulting Ltd

Early-age Thermal Cracking, usually termed as Early Thermal Cracking is a phenomenon in concrete structures, caused by excessive Tensile Strain in a concrete section above the Tensile capacity of concrete as a result of restraining thermal contraction or due to differential temperature within the cross section. There are several factors that can influence ETC in … Read more

Calculate Minimum Bar Spacing for Bundle Bars in Cast-in Place Concrete

Bundle Bars Minimum Bar Spacing

How to calculate Minimum Bar Spacing for Bundle Bars in Cast-in Place Concrete as per AASHTO provisions. Minimum Bar Spacing As per AASHTO LRFD, section 5.10 the minimum bar spacing for bundled bars shall be calculated based on the derived diameter instead of calculating from individual diameters. Example Calculation For example if we are using … Read more

What are the advantages of Integral Bridge over Bearing System in Bridges?

Series of integral concrete arches

Advantages of piers constructed monolithically, i.e. integral bridges with the bridge deck over usage of bearings? Integral Bridge, piers constructed monolithically with the bridge deck are advantageous in the following ways: Bearing replacement is one of the direct cost involved in the maintenance of bridges, and the one which worries the contractors. Using integral bridge … Read more

Fundamentals of Prestressed Concrete Bridge (with solved example)


Fundamentals of Prestressed Concrete Bridge (with solved example) Introduction: In prestressed concrete, a prestress force is applied to a concrete member and this induces an axial compression that counteracts all, or part of, the tensile stresses set up in the member by applied loading.  In the field of bridge engineering, the introduction of prestressed concrete … Read more

Design of Square Footing with Axial Loading (Solved Example)

Square footing Dimensions.

Design of Square Footings Footing is the lower end of a column, pillar or wall which is enlarged with projecting courses so as to distribute the load. Below explained design of a concrete footing. See the attached document below for detailed explanation of design of square footing. Problem Design a square footing for a square … Read more